The Computer with its insides!!!


Season's Greetings


Dear Readers/Patrons,

The year is coming to a close and the time has come to look back on what new Technologies have made their mark and how this Blog has impacted our lives. It has been a successful year. Our focus and our efforts regarding reliability, commitment and quality have been acknowledged and honored by you. Thank you. For now, it is time to let go, to enjoy the quiet time of the year and to find new strength and energy for the tasks ahead. This is the time for family, children and friends. And this is also the time to thank our families and friends for their support.

Have a cheerful, successful, healthy and happy year's ending, and a Merry Christmas and Happy New Year to those who celebrate it.

Thank you very much!

Sincerely
The Digital Electronics Blog

Top 10 predictions for the wireless industry


Originally from EE Times -- and followed by our reader comments

They are as follows:

1. High-speed downlink packet access (HSDPA), a third-generation cellular phone technology, will flourish.

Its a speculation. The infrastructure and inadequate popularity will push this to 2009.

2. The upcoming 700-MHz spectrum auction in the U.S. will provide an opportunity for a new wholesale carrier that will not sell services directly to consumers. This model will be driven by Google and similar companies, and will employ technology such as software-based radios, Wi-Fi, and femtocells.

This is also a speculation. I dont see any connection between 700MHz spectrum and software-based radios, Wi-Fi, and femtocells.

3. Open access and competition among chipmakers will drive device makers to bypass carriers. Open access will give birth to new services, but on the downside, subsidies that carriers currently provide on devices will be eliminated. There will likely be advertising-supported subsidies, meaning that instead of carrier contracts, consumers will have to agree to receive ads in order to get low-cost or free phones.

This is sure to be a reality.

4. With a move to Internet Protocol-based networks and open access, there will be an opportunity for real quality of service distinctions for carriers. On the low end, consumers will be able to bring their own devices to a carrier's network without receiving subsidies or the kind of support they currently expect by subscribing to carrier's services. On the high end, consumers can get high reliability, priority access, and quality of service guarantees on applications like voice over IP. Customers will self-select service based on their preferences, including the performance and the price they want.

This will be mainly dependent on the cloud comprising the government bodies, the service providers, the content providers and the customers. We have to wait and watch.

Verizon Wireless last month shocked the U.S. wireless industry, announcing that starting next year it will open up its nationwide network to mobile devices, software, and applications not offered by the carrier. The carrier said it will have two categories of customers: full-service customers -- those who purchase devices and services from Verizon and receive technical support, and bring-your-own customers -- those who bring their own devices to the carrier's network without full service.

This indeed will be a bold move if true.

5. Wireless broadband will continue to be the fastest-growing service. HSDPA will dominate until LTE goes commercial, and it will be embedded in laptops for wireless connectivity. Meanwhile, WiMax will be embedded in some consumer devices. As a result, the laptop market will get a boost because consumers will want to buy laptops that are better connected.

Skeptical.

6. Peer-to-peer will hit the mainstream as a technology. U.S. distributors will start using next-generation, secure, and DRM-protected P2P to distribute content. Additionally, studios and broadcasters will increase offerings of over-the-top services. Over-the-top refers to being able to download video on-demand and other content over the Internet on mobile devices.

There have been talks about this for a while but we dont think this will happen anytime in 2008.

7. Providing wireless coverage inside buildings will become a large part of carriers' strategy, especially when it comes to service enterprise customers. Carriers will enable coverage for their enterprise in-building customers, which bring in a lot of profit, instead of blanketing cities with coverage. Low-cost, low-power femtocells will be a key technology used by the carriers. Technical issues, however, will not take this technology into full swing next year. (Femtocells are small base stations designed for use in homes and offices to help spread cellular coverage inside buildings. They will attract more than 100 million users in the next 5 years, according to ABI Research. Potentially, the use of femtocells can improve indoor wireless coverage and help reduce "in-home" call charges on mobile devices.)

Very unlikely. Companies will still prefer their own private wireless networks.

8. As the carriers roll out 3G networks and introduce bandwidth-intensive services, they will have to optimize and upgrade the backhaul portion of their networks to ensure that service quality is not compromised. Backhaul will be a significant operational expense for carriers, often totaling nearly 30% of a carrier's annual network operating expense budget.

Quite possible.

9. Mobile advertising will drive content and innovation, even causing carriers to give up their subscription-based business models. Advertising-based models will win over subscription-based models, similarly to what happened on the Internet. Intelligent search, location-based search, and other tie-ins with content and products will generate sizeable advertising revenues for carriers.

Mobile advertising sales in the U.S. accounted for $421 million in 2006. That number is expected to reach nearly $5 billion by 2011 in the U.S. alone, according to market research firm eMarketer. Global mobile advertising sales will reach $11.3 billion by 2011.

Will happen.

10. A major iPhone security incident will occur in the enterprise, raising awareness of and need for mobile device security. A new market will evolve for mobile device security software and mobile device management software and services.

This is being very pessimistic.

Comments by Murugavel Ganesan

Intel to delay Yorkfield chips because of AMD's struggles?


Chalk this one up to wild unsubstantiated rumor, but Digitimes is reporting that Intel may hold off on launching its 45nm quad-core Yorkfield chips -- which were supposed to hit on January 20th -- because it's not facing any threat from AMD's delayed Phenom chips, and launching now would just eat into existing 65nm chip sales. That means we wouldn't see the Core 2 Quad Q9300, Q9450, or Q9550 until Intel feels the heat from AMD, which seems like a pretty timid strategy for a company whose former CEO's motto was "Only the paranoid survive." Add in the fact that a certain fruit company is rumored to be launching new Mac Pros with some version of 45nm Penryn chips next month, and we're really not feeling this one, but only time will tell.

AMD launches "unlocked" Phenom 9600 Black Edition CPU



The fury has really been unleashed over at AMD, as the cats in 2nd place take aim at the pocketbooks lowdown, dirty overclockers. Feeling like getting into it? Then you'll probably want to get your hands on the extra-special Phenom 9600 "Black Edition" quad-core processor, which allows brave souls to tweak (i.e., overclock) to their hearts content by utilizing the company's OverDrive utility. It's not all rainbows and unicorns, however, as these chips apparently contain a bug which under extreme conditions can cause the CPUs to perform in a less than stellar manner. AMD says that it hasn't witnessed any of its production installations exhibit the errata, and that only its internal stress-tests have pushed the processor into the danger zone (cue Loggins). If you're really concerned, a BIOS patch will circumvent the issue, but may suck away 20-percent of your delicious speed. The choice is yours.

Exclusive Interview on GLS (Gate level simulation)


A Verification engineer claiming mastery in Gate-level simulation is coming for an Interview.
Interviewer: Welcome
Job Seeker: thanks
(aliasing I for Interviewer and J for Job-seeker)
I : In your resume you had mentioned that are an expert in GLS(Gate-level simulation), how comfortable are you.
Read further Here

Quotes worth recording - Jules Renard


There is a common phrase used to describe some job candidates - "I don't know whether he has 10 years of experience or 1 year of experience repeated 10 times". It is just not how many years of experience you have that matters. "What" that experience was becomes important. Here is a quick quote that summarizes this brilliantly

"It is not how old you are, but how you are old" - Jules Renard

How are YOU impacting your team members and vice versa?


Every significant project that you undertake will transform every team member by the end of that project. The right project and the right team will lift every team member up. This is unavoidable and has to be dealt with. If you are leading the project, you have a huge influence (in turn, a huge responsibility) on the lives of individual team members of the project. In fact, you determine the location of the "fulcrum" of this project lever.

[Note: A lever has three parts - effort arm, fulcrum and resistance arm. Generally speaking, you can do more work with the lever if the fulcrum is closer to the resistance arm] If you are a better leader than Bob, you move the "fulcrum" farther away (closer to the resistance arm) - resulting in lifting your team members higher than Bob's team members.

However, the leader is not the only person who has a say on the position of the fulcrum. Every team member (with reasonable influence) will help to move the fulcrum to left or right or hold it in the same place. As a leader, you have to get help from people who are trying to move the fulcrum towards the resistance arm and fight (in a nice way) with people who are trying to move the fulcrum away from the resistance arm.

Imagine a dream team - where every team member participates to move the fulcrum towards the resistance arm. Life would be fun there.

Whether you are a leader or a team member, think about your own team today. Is the fulcrum moving in the right direction? If not, what are you doing today to move it in the right direction?

India, China are shaping the digital convergence


India and China are playing a major role in shaping the digital convergence, a much-hyped concept that is nevertheless proving to be a big opportunity and challenge for the global electronics industry. It is no doubt reshaping the entire electronics industry. The shift will be characterized by lower power consumption, higher processing capacity, greater functionality, interoperability and wireless access to information from myriad sources along with rapid introduction of new products. Though India's penetration in terms of Broadband affordability with breakthrough speeds are not fast enough with which pace Europe and china are headed but the pragmatic approach in the economic behavior of the indian middle class and the policy makers are greatly applaudable.

For technology managers and visonaries, the challenges presented by digital convergence include: more expensive designs as they are moved to 45-nm and lower process technologies; coping with changing technology standards while meeting time-to-market requirements; and managing rapidly rising processing needs.Digital convergence is shaping vertical markets from wireless to aerospace and in the wired market, it is forcing the retooling of packet processing, serial backplanes and interfaces. In the consumer market, it is reshaping digital displays and smart handheld devices.

The prediction and premise is that China and India will and are playing a key role in shaping digital convergence, primarily through the purchasing power of each nation's rising middle class. From an industry standpoint, Chinese hardware OEMs will play a larger role while R&D contributions from India will shape the development of new devices. India is beginning to show its mettle in terms of homegrown semiconductor products and other device solutions. In the upside, Asia as the whole will also help determine the pricing of digitally converged networks and devices, but "these two countries will set the norm for digitally converged applications in their own markets as well as globally.

Mark Stiles,
Senior Editor, The Digital Electronics Blog

ST manufactures first 45nm CMOS RF chips in Crolles


STMicroelectronics NV (Geneva, Switzerland) announced it has manufactured its first functional devices using the CMOS 45-nm Radio Frequency technology.[Read Further]

Microsoft Giving Away Vista Ultimate, With a Catch


In case you haven't heard, Microsoft is giving away copies of Windows Vista Ultimate (32-bit or 64-bit DVD), Microsoft Office Ultimate 2007, Microsoft Money Plus Premium, Microsoft Student with Encarta Premium 2008, or Microsoft Streets and Trips 2008 — you can choose any one. The caveat is that you have to let them monitor your use of the program.

Intel Chips 1971 to 2007


Intel Chips from 1971 to 2007:
Intel_Chips_Lineup.jpg














Check the link Here





Analog and Digital Circuits for Electronic Control System Applications: Using the TI MSP430 Microcontroller


Analog and Digital Circuits for Electronic Control System Applications: Using the TI MSP430 Microcontroller
by Jerry Luecke (Author) "Designers of analog electronic control systems have continually faced the following obstacles in arriving at a satisfactory design: 1. Instability and drift due to temperature..."

Book Description
Todays control system designers face an ever-increasing need for speed and accuracy in their system measurements and computations. New design approaches using microcontrollers and DSP are emerging, and designers must understand these new approaches, the tools available, and how best to apply them.

This practical text covers the latest techniques in microcontroller-based control system design, making use of the popular MSP430 microcontroller from Texas Instruments.

The book covers all the circuits of the system, including:
· Sensors and their output signals
· Design and application of signal conditioning circuits
· A-to-D and D-to-A circuit design
· Operation and application of the powerful and popular TI MSP430 microcontroller
· Data transmission circuits
· System power control circuitry

Written by an experienced microcontroller engineer and textbook author, the book is lavishly illustrated and includes numerous specific circuit design examples, including a fully tested and documented hands-on project using the MSP430 that makes use of the principles described. For students, engineers, technicians, and hobbyists, this practical text provides the answers you need to design modern control systems quickly and easily.

* Seasoned Texas Instruments designer provides a ground-up perspective on embedded control systems

* Pedagogical style provides a self-learning approach with examples, quizzes and review features

* CD-ROM contains source code and more!

Download Description
Embedded systems are ubiquitous; they are all around us, doing things for us without our awareness or involvement, like applying our brakes optimally in ABS systems, adjusting our environments in HVAC systems, and landing our aircraft in fly-by-wire systems. As these examples show, one of the most important functions of most embedded systems designs is the measurement, processing, and adjustment of real-world analog data (such as temperature, pressure, or humidity); these functions are generically known as control systems. In today's systems, the processing must be made at increasing speeds yet with the utmost accuracy and lowest possible power consumption. This practical book, written by a longtime designer and endorsed by Texas Instruments - who make the popular chip on which the book's examples are based - explains the latest techniques in microcontroller-based control system design, covering the fundamentals of sensors, and circuit design.

Analysis and Design of Analog Integrated Circuits (4th Edition)


Analysis and Design of Analog Integrated Circuits (4th Edition)
by Paul R. Gray (Author), Paul J. Hurst (Author), Stephen H. Lewis (Author), Robert G. Meyer (Author) "The analysis and design of integrated circuits depend heavily on the utilization of suitable models for integrated-circuit components..."

Book Description
The fourth edition features coverage of cutting edge topics--more advanced CMOS device electronics to include short-channel effects, weak inversion and impact ionization. In this resourceful book find: * Coverage of state-of-the-art IC processes shows how modern integrated circuits are fabricated, including recent issues like heterojunction bipolar transistors, copper interconnect and low permittivity dielectric materials * Comprehensive and unified treatment of bipolar and CMOS circuits helps readers design real-world amplifiers in silicon.

Book Info
Comprehensive and in-depth treatment of analog integrated circuit analysis and design, featuring new and expanded coverage of CMOS circuits and other key advanced technologies. Also includes new information on fully differential amplifiers and common-mode feedback, as well as two-port feedback analysis. Previous edition: c1993. DLC: Linear integrated circuits--Computer-aided design.

The Art of Analog Layout


The Art of Analog Layout
by Alan Hastings (Author), Roy Alan Hastings (Author)

Book Info
(Pearson Education) Provides layout designers with broad coverage of the issues involved in successfully laying out analog integrated circuits. Keeps mathematics to a minimum, provides a carrier-based model for understanding device operation, and offers many exercises that can be done with paper and pencil instead of software. DLC: Integrated circuits--Design and construction.

From the Back Cover

Based on the author's extensive experience as a circuit designer and a layout designer, The Art of Analog Layout takes a practical and authoritative perspective, providing the reader with broad coverage of the issues involved in successfully laying out analog integrated circuits. Topics range from the mechanics of layout to essential information about many related areas, such as device physics, processing failure modes and effects, device operation, parasitics, and matching. The emphasis throughout is on practical knowledge.

  • Written for layout designers, the mathematics is kept to a minimum, requiring only a familiarity with basic algebra and elementary electronics.
  • Provides a carrier-based model for understanding device operation.
  • Focuses on three processes: standard bipolar, polysilicon-gate CMOS, and analog BICMOS, enabling the reader to comprehend most new processes.
  • Discusses the ways in which variations in layout geometries affect the performance of devices fabricated in silicon.
  • Many exercises can be completed using pencil and paper for those who do not have access to layout editing software.

Analog Circuit Design: Art, Science and Personalities


Analog Circuit Design: Art, Science and Personalities (EDN Series for Design Engineers)
by Jim Williams (Editor) "Some time ago I received a call from a colleague, who asked if I would be the referee on the grading of an examination question..." ( more)

Analysis is a science: there's a right answer out there, and we can all agree when it's found. Troubleshooting is the same way: when the broken bit is found and fixed, the circuit starts working properly.

Design, on the other hand, is an art; there's always more than one way to do it, and the individuality of the designer has a strong influence on the way the design turns out: hence "Art, Science, and Personalities".

This isn't to say that a good designer does unusual things without a good reason, or adds expensive bells and whistles because he happens to like them. What it means is that for designs that are not routine, the designer's personality has a lot to do with how it comes out.

To become an expert designer, you need a well-developed technical taste. Once you have a design that works at some level, it's that sour feeling in the back of your mouth that will tell you that it isn't right yet, that it can be simpler, cheaper, or more reliable. There aren't a lot of other sources of that information.

Arts are taught by apprenticeship. But where are you going to go to get taught this stuff nowadays? EE departments are going more and more to software, as shown by the vast number of graduate EEs who don't know which end of a soldering iron to hold. Jim Williams can't be everybody's mentor, but in this informal (and sometimes whimsical) book, he and his friends show us how the best analogue designers in the business go about things. You know what? One of the most important elements in the art of design is *play*.

Maybe listening in on these guys playing at being analogue designers isn't quite the same as sitting elbow-to-elbow with them, but it's as close as most of us are going to get, and it's terrifically valuable. I recommend this book to anyone who wants to become a better analogue designer, and who is not easily put off by whimsy in technical writing. (I find it refreshing and fun, myself.) I've owned this book for 6 or 7 years, and it's about ready to fall apart from rereading.

Analog Circuits Cookbook


Analog Circuits Cookbook
by Ian Hickman (Author) "negative components may not be called for every day, but can be extremely useful in certain circumstances..." ( more)

Book Description
Analog Circuits Cookbook is a collection of tried and tested recipes form the masterchef of analog and RF design. Based on articles from Electronics World, this book provides a diet of high quality design techniques and applications, and proven ciruit designs, all concerned with the analog, RF and interface fields of electronics. Ian Hickman uses illustrations and examples rather than tough mathematical theory to present a wealth of ideas and tips based on his own workbench experience.

This second edition includes 10 of Hickman's latest articles, alongside 20 of his most popular classics. The new material includes articles on power supplies, filters using negative resistance, phase noise and video surveillance systems.

Essential reading for all circuit design professionals and advanced hobbyists
Contains 10 of Ian Hickman's latest articles, alongside 20 of his most popular classics.

Book Info
Offers expert advice on aspects of analog design, from direct digital synthesis to radio frequency measurements, and from optoelectronics to logarithmic amplifiers. Provides high quality design techniques and proven circuit designs, all concerned with analog, RF or interface fields of electronics. Softcover.

ASIC and FPGA Verification: A Guide to Component Modeling (Systems on Silicon)


ASIC and FPGA Verification: A Guide to Component Modeling (Systems on Silicon)

by Richard Munden
"As large and complex as today's FPGAs are, they always end up on a board..." ( more)

Key Phrases: path delay section, negative timing constraints, skew violation, Free Model Foundry, Output Glitch Detection Variables, Vital Memo (more...)

Review
Today it is still very difficult to verify board or larger system designs through simulation or any other technique. This important book addresses the largest ingredient needed to make simulation possible the availability of integrated circuit component models. Addressed inside is how to use VITAL extensions and other conventions with VHDL to develop inter operable, reusable models. Only by adopting the standards and practices described in this book can the industry benefit and make system simulation feasible.

Randy Harr, Sevni Technology


This book provides not only an excellent reference for those who write component models for board level verification, but also a much needed introduction to SDF and VITAL for timing simulation.

Hardy Pottinger, University of Missouri-Rolla

Book Description
Richard Munden demonstrates how to create and use simulation models for verifying ASIC and FPGA designs and board-level designs that use off-the-shelf digital components. Based on the VHDL/VITAL standard, these models include timing constraints and propagation delays that are required for accurate verification of todays digital designs.

ASIC and FPGA Verification: A Guide to Component Modeling expertly illustrates how ASICs and FPGAs can be verified in the larger context of a board or a system. It is a valuable resource for any designer who simulates multi-chip digital designs.
  • Provides numerous models and a clearly defined methodology for performing board-level simulation.
  • Covers the details of modeling for verification of both logic and timing.
  • First book to collect and teach techniques for using VHDL to model "off-the-shelf" or "IP" digital components for use in FPGA and board-level design verification.

MIT - 6.823 Computer System Architecture - Fall 2007 (Lecture Notes)


  • L-01: Computer System Architecture, pdf, ppt [09/05/07]
  • 1-Intro: Introduction to Pin, pdf [09/05/07]
  • L-02: Influence of Technology and Software on Instruction Sets: Up to the dawn of IBM 360, pdf, ppt [09/10/07]
  • L-03: Instruction Set Evolution in the Sixties: GPR, Stack, and Load-Store Architectures, pdf, ppt [09/12/07]
  • L-04: Hardwired, Non-pipelined ISA Implementation, pdf, ppt [09/17/07]
  • L-05: Instruction Pipelining and Hazards, pdf, ppt [09/19/07]
  • L-06: Microprogramming, pdf, ppt [09/26/07]
  • L-07: Cache Organization, pdf, ppt [10/01/07]
  • L-08: Memory Management: From Absolute Addresses to Demand Paging, pdf, ppt [10/03/07]
  • L-09: Modern Virtual Memory Systems, pdf, ppt [10/10/07]
  • L-10: Complex Pipelining, pdf, ppt [10/15/07]
  • L-11: Complex Pipelining: Out of Order Execution and Register Renaming, pdf, ppt [10/17/07]
  • L-12: Branch Prediction, pdf, ppt [10/22/07]
  • L-13: Speculative Execution, pdf, ppt [10/24/07]
  • L-14: Advanced Memory, pdf, ppt [10/29/07]
  • L-15: Multithreading, pdf, ppt [10/31/07]
  • L-16: VLIW/EPIC: Statically Scheduling ILP, pdf, ppt [11/05/07]
  • L-17: Vector Computers, pdf, ppt [11/07/07]
  • L-18: Virtual Machines and Dynamic Translation: Implementating ISA's in Software, pdf, ppt [11/14/07]
  • L-19: Reliable Architecture, pdf, ppt [11/19/07]
  • L-20: Symmetric Multiprocessors: Synchronization and Sequential Consistency, pdf, ppt [11/26/07]
Courtesy: MIT

MIT student projects - 6.884 Complex Digital Systems


  • Out-of-Order SMIPS Processor Using Tomasulo's Algorithm
    Cliff Frey and Vicky Liu
  • Memory Access Scheduler
    Matt Cohen and Alvin Lin
    • Cache-Coherent Memory System Using a Ring Network
      Albert Chiou and Mat Laibowitz
      • High-Performance SMIPS Processor
        Jonathan Eastep
        • Hardware Implementation of an 802.11a Transmitter
          Elizabeth Basha, Steve Gerding, and Rose Liu
          • The Pipe Dream: Out-of-Order SMIPS Processor using a Reorder Buffer
            Karthik Balakrishnan and Michal Karczmarek
            Courtesy: MIT
              • 2007 chip rankings, the Sliders and the Climbers


                Source EE Times

                Intel, Sony, Toshiba and Qualcomm are the stars -- or winners -- in iSuppli Corp.'s projected IC rankings for 2007. The losers: AMD, Freescale, among others. Advanced Micro Devices Inc. and Freescale Semiconductor Inc. are both projected to fall out of the top-10 rankings in terms of sales in 2007. (See charts below.)

                Intel Corp., whose chip revenue is expected to rise 7.7 percent to reach $33.97 billion in 2007, will remain the world's largest IC maker in 2007, according to the projected rankings. Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd. is projected to remain in second place in the rankings in terms of projectd IC sales for 2007, according to the research firm. Toshiba Corp. is expected to take third place, jumping over Texas Instruments Inc., who will be in fourth in the projected rankings for 2007, according to the firm. Rounding out the top-10, STMicroelectronics will be in fifth, followed by Hynix, Renesas, Sony, NXP and Infineon, according to the firm.

                Sony Corp. and Infineon Technologies AG made their way to the top-10. Sony was in 14th place in 2006, while Infineon was in 15th.

                Sony is still in limbo, however. Sony's revenue increase is nearly all due to its sales of chips for the company's PlayStation 3 video-game console, according to iSuppli. Company semiconductor revenue increased to $8 billion in 2007, up from $5.1 billion in 2006, they said. Sony has announced a deal to transfer production of its Cell microprocessor for the PlayStation 3 to Toshiba. If this deal closes before the end of the year, Sony's chip revenue in 2007 in this area will be transferred to Toshiba, based on iSuppli's methodology. Under these circumstances, Toshiba would increase its distance from TI's as the world's No. 3 semiconductor supplier, while Sony would drop out the Top-10 rankings, according to iSuppli.

                Meanwhile, Infineon is set to achieve a 14.6 percent increase in semiconductor revenue CY 2007, much of this increase is due to a rise in wireless communications semiconductor sales, they said.

                Another star, Qualcomm Inc., is expected to post the third largest increase in revenue among the top-20 semiconductor suppliers in 2007, rising by 23.7 percent to reach $5.6 billion, up from $4.5 billion in CY 2006. This will put Qualcomm into the market's 12th ranking in 2007, up from 16th in 2006. Qualcomm's increase is entirely due to a surge in sales of semiconductors for mobile handsets and infrastructure, the firm said.

                Going in the opposite direction, Freescale Semiconductor is set for a 10.7 percent decline in chip sales for 2007. This is primarily due to weakness at Freescale's largest customer, Motorola Inc., which has been losing market share to Nokia and Samsung in mobile handset sales in 2007, according to iSuppli.

                And at the same time, Intel outperformed its PC microprocessor rival, AMD, whose sales are expected to decline by 22.7 percent for the year. "Throughout most of the year, Intel successfully defended much of the market share that it won from AMD in the first quarter in the PC microprocessor segment due to the success of its lines of dual- and quad-core chips," said Dale Ford, vice president, market intelligence for iSuppli, in a statement.

                "This represents a major reversal of fortune compared to 2006, when AMD had the advantage with its popular dual-core microprocessors, allowing it to gain share from Intel," he said.

                Wireless HMD


                YelloMosquito delivers Qingbar Gp300: the wireless HMD
                Courtest - Engadget
                Although you may not be familiar with YelloMosquito, chances are you're totally aware of the business that 22Moo is in. Turns out, the former is simply a division of the latter, which is busy boasting about the Qingbar Gp300. 'Course, we've known that completely wireless head-mounted displays were in the works, but YM is claiming that these unsightly things are the world's first cordless LCOS video glasses to feature a built-in media player complete with DivX support. Reportedly, users can enjoy getting mocked while watching a 50-inch virtual screen, and they can load up their files via the built-in miniSD slot. If you just can't resist the urge to relive your Virtual Boy glory days, you can pre-order the December-bound unit now for $299 -- otherwise, you'll be laying down a Benjamin more (or smartly saving a mint) wh! en it ships en masse.

                [Image courtesy of YelloMosquito]

                Mentor Graphics, TSMC release 65-nm RF design kit


                Mentor Graphics Corp. (Wilsonville, Ore.) and Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co. Ltd. (Hsinchu, Taiwan) have announced the release of a 65-nm RF process design kit.

                ST opens office in Vietnam, say reports


                Identifying strong market potential in Vietnam, European chipmaker STMicroelectronics NV has opened a representative office in Hanoi, according to local newspapers <i>Viet Nam News</i> and <i>Thanh Nien Daily</i>.

                Stocks crumble on recession fears


                U.S. stocks retreated sharply on news corporate earnings sagged during the third quarter, dropping to its lowest level in years and sparking fears the economy could slide into a recession as corporations cut back on capital expenditure.

                Interview: Intel research trio discuss 45-nm high-k


                Three Intel researchers Robert Chau, Kaizad Mistry and Tahir Ghani, who were part of the team behind the 45nm high-k metal gate success, talk about the highs and lows of the project and what motivated them to press on and move on to more challenging endeavors.

                Interview Question - Intel, Folsom


                Your next co-op job is with the Independent Eagle-Eyed Elective, a consulting firm that performs code reviews for other companies. Your first task is to review the VHDL code for a new traffic-light controller that has been written by Valerie Hazelton and David Langsdorf.

                NOTES:
                1. The traffic-light controller is designed for conventional intersections of two roads, with green, yellow, and red lights facing each of the four directions. There are no turn signals or blinking green lights.
                2. Valerie and David have checked that their code is legal and synthesizable.
                3. Val and Dave have not yet simulated or verified their code.
                4. Each of the four directions (North, South, East, and West) has a traffic light.
                5. The North and South facing lights are both controlled by the NS light output of the controller.
                6. The East and West facing lights are both controlled by the EW light output of the controller.
                7. Each of the four direction has a car sensor (e.g. N car) to detect when a car is waiting for the light to turn green.














































                Identify three changes that VH and DL should make to their code that will have the largest impact in improving the controller (e.g. optimizations or bug fixes). For each change:

                NOTES:
                1. Identify the lines of code or signals affected by the change
                2. Describe the change
                3. Justify the importance of the change in terms of its impact on the controller

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                Interview Question


                Some software programming languages allow compilers to perform "short cut" or "short circuit" optimizations on AND and OR operations. In a short-cut AND or OR, the second argument is not evaluated if the first argument evaluates to a controlling value. For example, in evaluating f(x) AND g(y), if f(x) is false, then g(y) will not be evaluted.

                Answer whether this optimization is feasible and beneficial in hardware.

                Solution:
                This optimization is neither feasible nor beneficial for hardware.
                Hardware executes in parallel (concurrently) and software executes sequentially (serially). In hardware, we already have the circuitry to evaluate both sides of an operand. It would require more circuitry and incur greater delay to control the evaluation of the second operand than to just use the result of the second operand.

                Extra notes:
                • f(x) and g(y) take multiple cycles to execute and each is executed on separate hardware, then we can execute both f(x) and g(y) at the same time and perform the short-cut optimization if the first operation to complete execution results in a controlling value.
                • If f(x) and g(y) take multiple clock cycles to execute and are executed on the same hardware, then the short-cut optimization is feasible and beneficial.
                Poor justification: Confusing “short-circuiting” as software jargon with short circuiting in the
                hardware world.

                Difficulty: Easy

                BSNL IPTV, Triple Play, Multi Play, India


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                Inverter madness - Interview Question


                • The following graph plots the voltage transfer characteristic for a device with one input and one output. Can this device be used as a combinational device in a logic family with 0.75V noise margins?





















                • You are designing a new logic family and trying to decide on values of the four parameters VIL, VOL, VIH, VOH that lead to non-zero noise margins for various possible inverter designs. Four proposed inverter designs exhibit the voltage transfer characteristics shown in the diagrams below. For each design, either (1) specify suitable values of VIL, VOL, VIH, VOH. or (2) explain why no values for these parameters satisfy the static discipline.



                Difficulty: Medium

                Digital Abstraction - Interview Question


                1. The behavior of a 1-input, 1-output device is measured by hooking a voltage source to its input and measuring the voltage at the output for several different input voltages:
                  We're interested in whether this device can serve as a legal combinational device that obeys the static discipline. For this device, obeying the static discipline means that
                  if VIN <= VIL then VOUT >= VOH, and
                  if VIN >= VIH then VOUT <=
                  VOL.
                  • Can one chose a VOL of 0V for this device? Explain.
                  • What's the smallest VOL one can choose and still have the device obey the static discipline? Explain.
                  • Assuming that we want to have 0.5V noise margins for both "0" and "1" values, what are appropriate voltage levels for VOL, VIL, VIH, and VOH so that the device obeys the static discipline. Hint: there are many possible choices, just choose one that obeys the constraints listed above.
                  • Assuming that we want to have 0.5V noise margins for both "0" and "1" values, what is the largest possible voltage level for VOL that still results in a device that obeys the static discipline?
                  • Assuming that we want to have equal noise margins for both "0" and "1" values, what is the largest noise margin we can achieve with this device and still obey the static discipline?
                Difficulty: Medium

                VHDL Interview Question(s)


                1. What are the two key concepts in the simulation semantics of VHDL and how does each concept help VHDL simulation produce waveforms that match the behaviour that we expect?
                2. What is the advantage of RTL simulation in comparison to simulation as defined by the VHDL standard?
                3. What is the disadvantage of RTL simulation in comparison to simulation as defined by the VHDL standard?
                4. For each of the architectures muruku 1. . . muruku 4, answer the following questions.
                  • INSTRUCTIONS:
                    1. Is the code legal VHDL?
                    2. If the code is legal VHDL:
                      • Answer whether the behaviour of the signal z has the same behaviour as in the main architecture of sumit.
                      • Answer whether the code is synthesizable.
                      • If the code is synthesizable, answer whether it adheres to good coding practices.
                If the the code is not legal, not synthesizable, or does not follow good coding practices, explain why.

                entity sumit is
                port (
                a, b, clk : in std_logic;
                z : out std_logic
                );
                end sumit;

                architecture main of sumit is
                signal m : std_logic;
                begin
                process ( clk )
                begin
                if rising_edge( clk ) then
                m <= a or b; end if; end process; process ( clk ) begin if rising_edge( clk ) then z <= not m; end if; end process; end main;
                1. Muruku 1
                  • architecture muruku_1 of sumit is
                    signal m : std_logic;
                    begin
                    process ( clk )
                    begin
                    if rising_edge( clk ) then
                    m <= a or b; z <= not m; end if; end process; end muruku_1;
                2. Muruku_X
                  • architecture muruku_X of sumit is
                    signal m, p : std_logic;
                    begin
                    process ( clk )
                    begin
                    if rising_edge( clk ) then
                    m <= a or b; end if; end process; process ( clk ) begin if rising_edge( clk ) then z <= p; end if; end process; p <= not m; end muruku_X;
                3. Muruku_2
                  • architecture muruku_2 of sumit is
                    signal m, p : std_logic;
                    begin
                    if (a or b) = ’1’ generate
                    m <= ’1’; end generate; if (a or b) = ’0’ generate m <= ’0’; end generate; process ( clk ) begin if rising_edge( clk ) then p <= m; end if; end process; process ( clk ) begin if rising_edge( clk ) then z <= not p; end if; end process; end muruku_2;
                4. Muruku_3
                  • architecture muruku_3 of sumit is
                    begin
                    process
                    begin
                    wait until rising_edge(clk);
                    wait until rising_edge(clk);
                    z <= not (a or b); end process; end muruku_3;
                5. Muruku_4
                  • architecture muruku_4 of sumit is
                    signal m, p : std_logic;
                    begin
                    process ( clk )
                    begin
                    if rising_edge( clk ) then
                    m <= a or b; end if; end process; process ( clk ) begin if rising_edge( clk ) then p <= m; end if; end process; z <= not p; end muruku_4;
                Difficulty: Medium

                Functional verification and 'e'


                The e language enjoys popular use in the ASIC/VLSI industry for creating spec's, modeling, testing and verification of hardware systems.

                Features of e include a combination of object oriented and constraint oriented mechanisms for the specification of data formats and interdependencies, interesting mechanisms of inheritance, and an efficient combination of interpreted and compiled code. Since the language is also extensible it serves as a living, industrial scale, implementation and application of the aspect oriented programming paradigm.

                During the course of the following tryst with the e language we will cover the language highlights, its novel features and their particular suitability to the task of hardware verification, and reports on our experience of aspect oriented programming in this intense commercial setting. Objects have been a great success at facilitating the separation of concerns, but objects are limited in their ability to modularize systemic concerns that are not localized to a single module's boundaries. Rather than staying well, localized within a class, these concerns tend to crosscut the system's class and module structure. Much of the complexity and brittleness in existing systems appears to stem from the way in which the implementation of these kinds of concerns comes to be intertwined throughout the code.

                We observed that while object oriented techniques have given the programmer excellent data abstraction mechanisms, objects themselves are cumbersome when it comes to expressing aspects of behavior that affect several data types. Conversely, OOP fails in naturally facilitating non-invasive extension mechanisms for layering new functionality over existing code.
                • A typical verification problem: A functional verification program consists of a more or less detailed description of the functionality of a device, its operating environment, and the data transformations it performs. In general terms functional verification is predicated on the assumption that a detailed simulation model of a device has been implemented in a suitable hardware description language. Such descriptions are simulated in software or emulated in configurable hardware for the purpose of determining the precise timing properties of the design, as well as to judge its functional correctness. Given such an implementation of the device under test (DUT) a suitable testbench needs to be erected around the DUT in order to subject it to a large number of tests.
                  • Instructions: A key element in any verification environment is an adequate description of the data being manipulated—CPU instructions, in this case. Such descriptions typically do form natural classes of structured data—thus CPU instructions will be defined by some common elements such as opcode and addressing mode, but differences emerge (say) in the operands present causing a classification into immediate (e.g., the second operand, op2, is a two byte integer constant), memory (op2 is a two byte memory address), and register instructions (op2 is a four bit register index).
                  • Test Generator: This software ultimately creates a sequence of test vectors (of bits) to stimulate the DUT whether on-the-fly, or as a prelude to running a test. Setting aside the question of how to (randomly) generate instances of the data classes involved, the test generator needs to determine what are legal inputs, and what are not. To some extent a strong type system helps define legal ranges—it is easy then to generate a random four bit value for op2 in the register class. However via types it is difficult to stipulate, for example, that since register zero never holds a branch address an indexed branch instruction cannot have op2 equal to zero. Constraints, in the form of Boolean relationships over the fields of class definitions, contribute the necessary flexibility, relieving the programmer (or test writer) of much unnecessary programming.
                  • Reference model: Commonly, but not necessarily, a reference model will be used to predict correct responses from the DUT for each datum input during a test. Typically functional verification works at the level of whole transactions rather than clock cycles of the DUT—in this case a transaction is initiated by injecting an instruction into the running simulation, and terminated some time later by observing a result on one of the device’s output channels. Reference models thus do not need to be cycle accurate specifications of the hardware, just functionally accurate.
                  • Checker: The testbench must obviously check the expected results of the test against the actual computation. In CPU verifications there are typically two types of checker: a data checker that ensures that all instructions computed the correct results, and a temporal checker that monitors how each instruction is executed by the DUT. This latter activity calls for the definition of behavioral rules (e.g., via executable temporal logic, or finite automata) that are run concurrently with the DUT, monitoring its state and progress.
                  • Coverage: Metrics that help the verification engineer decide how well the verification is progressing have to be carefully designed with reference to a test plan. For instance it may be required to test that the CPU responded correctly to an interrupt when a branch instruction was being decoded. The ‘responds correctly’ may be a temporal rule invoked under such circumstances, but the fact that this scenario occurred during testing would be entered as a functional coverage point. In a simple case one might be content to count how many times this combination of circumstances occurred.
                    Given a functional verification environment such as that envisaged above, tests will be devised to exercise the design. Sometimes these need to be very deterministic (e.g., in the early phases of the verification effort when one is testing basic functionality), but better coverage of the state space is achieved through random testing, especially when the ‘randomness’ can be directed towards particular goals. Often such goals are expressed as corner cases, particularly where functions of the device interact with one another. Principally it is for this purpose that the e language has been developed: random, directed test generation.
                  • Factors influencing e's design: Since its initial conception in the early nineties the e language has evolved to meet the needs of functional verification engineers. e is used to describe the DUT, its operating environment, its legal inputs, and its behavior over time. Specman, Verisity’s flagship product implementing the language and runtime system, takes such a description and uses it to generate test inputs and drive them into the DUT, carry out temporal and data checking by monitoring the device, create coverage reports, and assist in debugging. Even though e is a general-purpose programming language (in fact most of Specman is written in e) its design has been geared towards the task of modeling and verifying hardware systems. This specific task imposed a number of important characteristics on the language.
                    • Specialized Lingual Constructs: These include constraints, for example, which provide an effective declarative mechanism for the specification of configurations and for guiding test generation, and temporal properties (also declarative) which are used to describe time based phenomena. Inevitably there are many hardware oriented primitive types and operators on them such as bit-access and bit-slicing (common HDL functions), as well as mechanisms for specifying parallel execution.
                    • Simplified textual syntax:The rich toolset that e provides to its user must be served in an easy to use, non-cryptic syntax. The design of the syntax and the semantics were also influenced by the reality that the principal users of the language are not software specialists but mainly hardware engineers who, in particular, may not be schooled in object oriented languages.
                    • Performance: The verification of hardware systems by means of simulation is, almost by definition, a slow process. Every hardware cycle in which many operations may take place in parallel is translated to a sequence of slow software steps. In addition, the quality of a verification process is highly dependent on its coverage level. Even a non-exhaustive verification process may execute for months on dedicated powerful servers. This is the reason why e has a very efficient implementation; typically, an instruction (such as field access or function call) in e is implemented in a similar manner to the equivalent instruction in C.
                    • Compiled and interpreted code: For reasons that are discussed in subsequent Sections below, there is a need when building testbenches to be able to load files which add new features, constructs, and especially constraints,
                      on top of an extant code base. There is also a need for mixing those independently constructed additions in an unrestricted way.
                      On the face of it e is a lexically scoped, statically type checked object-oriented language with single inheritance. A struct in e, just like a class in other programming languages, may declare fields and methods. Structs may also contain several unique declarative components, including constraints (affecting initial values assigned to fields), event definitions (for monitoring DUT behaviour), and temporal properties (checking protocols, etc.). The temporal and concurrent features of e are not discussed further here.
                      A simple example, drawn from a verification environment for a packet switching device, demonstrates how constraints are used in e.
                      type packet kind: [empty,short,long];
                      struct packet {
                      i: int;
                      j: int;
                      kind: packet kind;
                      keep i < j + 1;
                      keep j in [1..5];
                      };
                      The first of these two statements declares an enumerated type, the second declares a structured object with several scalar fields. The keeps are constraints that affect initial values assigned to the fields mentioned whenever an instance of this class is created—Specman resolves such constraints during a test run in order to generate a random, directed stream of data for the DUT. Constraints in e are linear functions over finite domains.
                      While the synthesis of constraint solving and object oriented programming in e is an interesting subject in itself, it is not explored further in this article which rather focuses on the language constructs that address separation of concerns. Thus, in addition to the simple inheritance mechanism (which is called like inheritance in e), the language provides a unique and powerful when inheritance mechanism. Moreover, any e struct can be extended in a later module: fields, methods, events, and constraints can be added to it, and method definitions can be modified or overridden. Interpreted files can be loaded on top of a compiled executable, possibly extending already-compiled structs. The extension capabilities are discussed in Sections below, the when inheritance mechanism is also deferred until subsequent Sections.
                  • The aspect-oriented features of e
                    • Motivation:
                    • Orthogonal extensions
                    • Other uses of extension
                      • Ease of debugging/analysis
                      • Design exploration
                      • Replacing callback registrations
                    • Extending in-place
                  • Extending extend
                    • No pre-processor
                    • The need for environmental acquisition
                    • Using when inheritance
                  • Conclusion
                Contributed by Deepak et.al

                To be completed..

                Intel's Power-Efficient Penryn Processors


                Over the weekend Intel launched its long-awaited new 'Penryn' line of power-efficient microprocessors, designed to deliver better graphics and application performance as well as virtualization capabilities. The processors are the first to use high-k metal-gate transistors, which makes them faster and less leaky compared with earlier processors that have silicon gates. The processor is lead free and by next year Intel is planning to produce chips that are halogen free, making them more environmentally friendly. Penryn processors jump to higher clock rates and feature cache and design improvements that boost the processors' performance compared with earlier 65-nm processors, which should attract the interest of business workstation users and gamers looking for improved system and media performance.

                Funny twist with compression and performance - Interview Question


                The organization Scholastic Lecture Expert Productivity Testers (SLEPT), has defined a standardized algorithm to compress digital-video lectures by removing irrelevant material. The company you work for, Yawn Inc, is developing a circuit that implements this compression algorithm. A competing company, Snore Co, has just released their own circuit that also implements the standardized algorithm.

                SLEPT has established a benchmark of five lectures to use for comparing circuits that implement the compression algorithm.
                The CEO of your company, Dr. Owsy has asked you to calculate the price at which you should sell the Yawn circuit such that you can advertise to consumers that the price/performance ratio for the Yawn circuit is 10% better than the Snore circuit.

                You evaluate a Yawn circuit and a Snore circuit in your lab, and gather the following data. Unfortunately, you fall asleep on the backspace button, deleting the information for the length of lectures after compression for the Yawn circuit.

                Collect the below data...












                1. Define “performance” for circuits that run the SLEPT compression algorithm. Briefly justify your definition.
                2. Assuming that the selling price of Snore Co’s circuit is $150, compute the selling price for the Yawn circuit that would make its price/performance ratio 10% better than the Snore circuit. If you do not have enough information to calculate the selling price: explain how you could obtain the missing information and show your equation that uses the missing information to calculate the selling price.
                Solution:
                1. Performance is work/time. The work that the circuit does is to compress lecures. The SLEPT algorithm is standardized. All circuits that implement the algorithm will produce the same results (e.g. same amount of compression). Hence, all circuits do the same amount of work.The time taken to do the work is the “Execution time for circuit”. Because we have a benchmark, the execution time to compare is the time to run the benchmark, that is, compress the five lectures in the benchmark.











                A better price/performance ratio means that the price is lower or the performance is greater: the lower the ratio the better the ratio.

                Starting with the formula for “a is n% more than b”: we get the following









                Difficulty:
                Medium

                The Good, the Bad, and the Unsynthesizable - Interview Questions


                1. For each of the code fragments, answer whether the code is legal VHDL.
                2. If the code is legal VHDL, answer whether it is synthesizable.
                3. If the code is synthesizable:
                  • answer whether it represents good coding practices.
                  • answer whether the signal w or y is combinational, a latch, or a flip-flop.
                  • If the the code is not legal, is not synthesizable, or does not follow good coding practices, explain why.
                4. The signals are declared as follows:
                  • a, b, c, d, w : std logic
                  • m, y : unsigned(15 downto 0)

                process (a, b) begin
                if a = '1' then
                w <= b;
                end if;
                end process;

                process (a, c) begin
                if a = '0' then
                w <= c;
                end if;
                end process;

                Answer:
                unsynth: single assignment rule — can't have multiple processes driving the same signal

                process begin
                wait until rising_edge(a);
                w <= not w;
                end process;

                Answer:
                good: w=flop // or bad coding style, because state machine without reset

                b <= a;
                if b = '1' generate
                w <= c;
                end generate;
                if b = '0' generate
                w <= d;
                end generate;

                Answer:

                illegal: dynamic test in generate

                process begin
                w <= '0';
                wait until (a = '0');
                p: loop
                wait until rising_edge(b);
                next p when (a = '1');
                w <= c xor d;
                end loop;
                end process;

                Answer:

                unsynth: different wait conditions

                process (m) begin
                for i in 15 downto 0 loop
                if 3 >= i then
                y(i) <= '0';
                else
                y(i) <= m(i-3);
                end if;
                end loop;
                end process;

                Answer:

                good: y = comb

                process begin
                wait until rising_edge(a);
                if b = '1' then
                wait until rising_edge(a);
                w <= b;
                else
                w <= c;
                end if;
                end process;

                Answer:

                good: w=flop

                Difficulty:
                Easy

                Texas Instruments, Bangalore - Interview Questions - Freshers


                For the following question, you only need to give the relevant VHDL code fragment (i.e. process that drives the flop). You may assume that any signals you need or want to use are defined appropriately. Use obvious labels like d, q, cs select, reset, etc.
                1. Give a VHDL code fragment to implement a standard D flip-flop.
                2. Give a VHDL code fragment to implement a flip-flop with a multiplexer on its input (assume two inputs: a and b).
                3. Give a VHDL code fragment to implement a flip-flop with a chip select line and an asynchronous reset.
                Sol 1:
                process(clk)
                begin
                if rising_edge(clk) then
                q <= d;
                end if;
                end process;

                Sol 2:
                process(clk)
                begin
                if rising_edge(clk) then
                if (sel = '1')
                q <= a;
                else
                q <= b;
                end if;
                end if;
                end process;

                Sol 3:
                process(clk, reset)
                begin
                if (reset = '1') then
                q <= '0';
                elsif rising_edge(clk) then
                if (cs_select = '1') then
                q <= d;
                end if;
                end if;
                end process;


                Difficulty: Easy

                Wishing you a happy Deepavali


                We @ The Digital Electronics Blog wish our readers
                "A Very Happy Deepavali"

                Interview Question - Bangalore


                Assume a clock-gating scheme for turning off the clock in certain situations:
                • 60% of the time, the main circuit has valid data
                • the clock gating circuitry is 80% effective
                • the clock gating circuitry has a capacitance equal to 15% of the main circuit
                • the clock gating circuitry has an activity factor equal to 1.1 times that of the main circuit.
                How much power will be saved (as a percentage of the original power) by this clock gating scheme?

                Solution: 15.5%
                Want a full solution?

                Difficulty: Medium

                Qualcomm Interview Questions - Bangalore


                1. The average performance of products in your market segment triples every 36 months. Your design engineers have proposed an optimization that will increase performance by 12%. The optimization will postpone the completion date of the project by 2 months. Should the engineers implement the optimization and postpone the completion date, or should they stick to the original schedule?
                2. Your group designs a microprocessor for use in cell phones and palmtop computers. You currently fabricate your chips on a 0.25micron process. A new fabrication facility with a 0.13micron process has asked you if you would like to switch to their facility. What do you believe will be the three most important tradeoffs between remaining with the 0.25 micron fabrication process and switching to the 0.13 micron process?
                3. Explain derating factor
                Possible solutions:

                1. The average performance in the market segment will increase by 6.3%. Design engineers will increase performance by 12%, which is more than the competition will increase in performance. So, the engineers should complete the optimization and postpone the completion date.
                2. The three points
                  • smaller feature size will likely increase leakage power
                  • smaller feature size will decrease area, thereby decreasing cost
                  • new facility may have manufacturing problems
                3. Derating factors give factors for predicting the maximum clock speed of a circuit as supply voltage, temperature, and other environmental factors change. In the formula below, F is the maximum clock speed and V is the supply voltage. As the supply voltage increases, the maximum clock speed also increases.
                F = ( V - Vt) ^2/V

                Difficulty: Medium

                Broadcom Bangalore - Interview Questions


                1. The new vice president of your company has set up a contest for ideas to reduce leakage power in the next generation of chips that the company fabricates. The prize for the person who submits the suggestion that makes the best tradeoff between leakage power and other design goals is to have a door installed on their cube. What is your door-winning idea, and what tradeoffs will your idea require in order to achieve the reduction in leakage power?
                2. You're on the functional validation team for a chip that will control a simple portable CD-player. Your task is to create a plan for the functional validation for the signals in the entity cd digital. You've been told that the player behaves "just like all of the other CD players out there". If your test plan requires knowledge about any potential non-standard features or behaviour, you'll need to document your assumptions.
                  • Display Show following: 2 digit Track #, 2 digit Minutes & 2 digit Seconds
                  • Buttons Available: Prev, Stop, Play&Pause, Next, Pwr

                  • entity cd_digital is
                    port (
                    -- buttons
                    prev,
                    stop,
                    play&pause,
                    next,
                    pwr : in std_logic;
                    -- detect if player door is open
                    open : in std_logic;
                    -- output display information
                    track : out std_logic_vector(3 downto 0);
                    min : out unsigned(6 downto 0);
                    sec : out unsigned(5 downto 0)
                    );
                    end cd_digital;
                  1. Describe five tests that you would run as soon as the VHDL code is simulatable. For each test: describe what your specification, stimulus, and check. Summarize the why your collection of tests should be the first tests that are run.
                  2. Describe five corner-cases or boundary conditions, and explain the role of corner cases and boundary conditions in functional validation.

                Possible Solutions in order:
                1. Increase transistor size so as to increase threshold voltage. This will require an increase in supply voltage, which will likely increase total power.
                  • Alternative: When increasing transistor size, keep the supply voltage the same, but decrease performance.
                  • Alternative: Change fabrication process and materials to reduce leakage current. This will likely be expensive.
                  • Alternative: Use dual-Vt fabrication process.
                2. There can be many possible solutions but the best ones are what the interviewer is looking for.
                  • The possible Tests:
                    1. Test 1:
                      • Specification: when power is turned on, the display will show the number of tracks on the CD, and the minutes and seconds will show the total length of the CD
                      • Stimulus: power='0'; wait; power='1', all other signals are '0'.
                      • check: display outputs of circuit match specification
                    2. Test 2:
                      • Specification: when power is on, play starts CD playing, display for track=1, min and sec show remaining time for song and start decrementing.
                      • Stimulus: power='1'; play='0'; wait; play='1', all other signals are '0'.
                      • Check: display outputs of circuit match specification
                    3. Test 3:
                      • Specification: when power is on and CD is playing, next starts next song. Display for track increments, min and sec show remaining time for next song and start decrementing.
                      • Stimulus: power='1'; play='0'; next='0'; wait; play='1'; wait; next='1', all other signals are '0'.
                      • Check: display outputs of circuit match specification
                    4. Test 4:
                      • Specification: when power is on and CD is playing, prev starts previous song. Display for track decrements, min and sec show remaining time for previous song and start decrementing.
                      • Stimulus: power='1'; play='0'; prev='0'; wait; play='1'; wait; prev='1', all other signals are '0'.
                      • Check: display outputs of circuit match specification
                    5. Test 5:
                      • Specification: when power is on and CD is playing, stop causes CD to stop.
                      • Stimulus: power='1'; play='0'; stop='0'; wait; play='1'; wait; stop='1', all other signals are '0'.
                      • Check: display outputs of circuit match specification
                Now one last hurdle! Can you justify all the solutions above?

                Difficulty: Medium