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DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory) is attractive to designers because it provides a broad range of performance and is used in a wide variety of memory system designs for computers and embedded systems. This DRAM memory primer provides an overview of DRAM concepts, presents potential future DRAM developments and offers an overview for memory design improvement through verification.
Systems designers are having a difficult time developing power subsystems that supply all of their system's power needs due to varied and changing power requirements. A new type of power subsystem—the field-programmable power subsystem or FPPS—squarely addresses this issue by providing a flexible approach that costs no more than conventional switching power subsystems. This white paper discusses the advantages and benefits of field-programmable power subsystems and discusses the many ways they reduce system-design risks.
Most failures are not single-point; generally a single event does not entirely account for the failure. Often multiple problems interact to precipitate the failure. Multiple initiating events and unforeseen circumstances usually combine to force the system into regions of complexity that the human mind cannot easily predict or even comprehend. Non-obvious use and improper operation can lead to failure. This paper(a must read) looks at various events in history where multiple problems lead to catastrophic accidents.