Showing posts with label CMOS. Show all posts
Showing posts with label CMOS. Show all posts

Why High-k dielectrics in sub 45nm nodes?


To meet the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) forecast that device with gate length of sub-10nm will be fabricated by 2016 advanced gate stacks with high-k dielectrics are of intensive research interests. Stringent power requirements in the chips also dictate replacement of silicon dioxide as it has already reached the direct tunneling regime. Currently, many different high-k materials have been explored to replace the silicon dioxide as gate dielectrics. So, what is it that makes High-K dielectrics so attractive in today's technology scaling raodmaps :-)?

In cutting edge silicon nanoelectronics both high-k and low-k dielectrics are needed to implement fully functional and very high-density integrated circuits, although for drastically different reasons. High-k dielectrics are needed in MOS gate stacks to maintain sufficiently high capacitance of the metal (gate)-dielectric-Si structure in MOS/CMOS transistors. Due to the continued scaling of the channel lengths, and hence reduced gate area, the need to maintain sufficient capacitance of the MOS gate stack was met by gradual decrease of the thickness of SiO2 gate oxide Obviously such scaling cannot continue indefinitely as at a certain point gate oxide will become so thin (thinner than about 1 nm) that, due to excessive tunneling current, it would stop playing the role of an insulator. Hence, dielectric featuring k higher than 3.9, i.e. one assuring same capacitive coupling but at the larger physical thickness of the film, must be used instead of SiO2 as a gate dielectric in advanced MOS/CMOS integrated circuits.

On the opposite end of the spectrum finds itself a multi-layer metallization scheme in which inter-layerdielectric (ILD) is used to electrically insulate metal lines. In this case it is of critical importance that the capacitive coupling between adjacent interconnect lines is as limited as possible. Hence, a low-k dielectric must be used to assure as little capacitive coupling (low “cross-talk”) between interconnect lines as possible.

Whether the problem is with high-k dielectrics for MOS gates or low-k dielectrics for ILDs, lack of viable technical solutions in either of these areas will bring any future progress in mainstream silicon technology to a screeching halt. The reliability requirements and challenges of some short-listed high-k dielectrics such as HfO2 and HfSiO2 are widely used by Intel for its 32nm technology nodes for its upcoming processors.

Low power design


Primarily design for low power depends on the characteristics design being accomplished. If it is a multi-million gate design we cannot implement any technique that is gate specific, it has to be a global technique.
  1. Multi-Vdd, variable Vdd and Multi-Vth seems to be a good global solution.
  2. Reducing the clock speed will result in low power consumption, but on the cost of performance.
  3. Using power headers and power footer transistors on logic gates cuts down power.
  4. You could separate the design in blocks, which can go in to sleep mode.
  5. Another solutions is variable VDD and variable frequency (as Intel or AMD do).This means, you adapt VDD and frequency to the necessary performance.
  6. Gated clocks and Logic Addressable clocks, dis adv - timing problems due to improper latching of signals, and difficult to test.
  7. -ve edge triggered flops, (nor+inv) = 1.5 gates, +ve edge triggered flops, (and+inv) = 2.5 gates, so -ve has less gates, less glitching and hence low power.

Any more thoughts and ideas are welcome.

Application Specific Integrated Circuit ( ASIC )


An application-specific integrated circuit or ASIC comprises an integrated circuit (IC) with functionality customized for a particular use (equipment or project), rather than serving for general-purpose use.

For example, a chip designed solely to run a cash register is an ASIC. In contrast, a microprocessor is not application-specific, because users can adapt it to many purposes.

The initial ASICs used gate-array technology.

The British firm Ferranti produced perhaps the first gate-array, the ULA (Uncommitted Logic Array), around 1980. Customisation occurred by varying the metal interconnect mask. ULAs had complexities of up to a few thousand gates. Later versions became more generalized, with different base dies customised by both metal and polysilicon layers. Some base dies include RAM elements.

In the late 1980s, the availability of logic synthesis tools (such as Design Compiler) that could accept hardware description language descriptions using Verilog and VHDL and compile a high-level description into to an optimised gate level netlist brought "standard-cell" design into the fore-front. A standard-cell library consists of pre-characterized collections of gates (such as 2 input nor, 2 input nand, invertors, etc.) that the silicon compiler uses to translate the original source into a gate level netlist. This netlist is fed into a place and route tool to create a physical layout. Routing applications then place the pre-characterized cells in a matrix fashion, and then route the connections through the matrix. The final output of the "place & route" process comprises a data-base representing the various layers and polygons in GDS-II format that represent the different mask-layers of the actual chip.

Finally, designers can also take the "full-custom" route in implementing an ASIC. In this case, an individual description of each transistor occurs in building the circuit. A "full-custom" implementation may function five times faster than a "standard-cell" implementation. The "standard-cell" implementation can usually be implemented quite a bit quicker and with less risk of errors, than the "full-custom" choice.

As feature sizes have shrunk and design tools improved over the years, the maximum complexity (and hence functionality) has increased from 5000 gates to 20 million or more. Modern ASICs often include 32-bit processors and other large building-blocks. Many people refer to such an ASIC as a SoC - System on a Chip.

The use of intellectual property (IP) in ASICs has become a growing trend. Many ASIC houses have had standard cell libraries for years. However IP takes the reuse of designs to a new level. Designers of most complex digital ICs now utilise computer languages that describe electronics rather than code. Many organizations now sell tested functional blocks written in these languages. For example, one can purchase CPUs, ethernet or telephone interfaces.

For smaller designs and/or lower production volumes, ASICs have started to become a less attractive solution, as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) grow larger, faster and more capable. Some SoCs consist of a microprocessor, various types of memory and a large FPGA.

So having said, this blog is dedicated to Digital Electronics, VLSI, ASICs, SOCs etc.